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Colonisation of and immigration to Aotearoa New Zealand, including the New Zealand wars

Links to resources relating to the theme of colonisation of and immigration to Aotearoa New Zealand, including the New Zealand wars.

Te Kete Ipurangi – Māori History: Resistance and conflict resources

This page from TKI's Māori History site provides links to resources that teachers can use to shape a resistance and conflict based programme of learning that meets achievement objectives across The New Zealand Curriculum and Te Marautanga o Aotearoa.

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Te Ara: New Zealand Wars

This section of the Te Ara website focuses on the New Zealand Wars, the mid–19th century conflicts between government forces and some Māori tribes. The two major periods of conflict were the mid–1840s and the 1860s, and this website tells the story of the battles in each area around New Zealand at the time, and the long term impact of them.

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Te Ara: Te Tai Treaty Settlement Stories

This digital storytelling programme on Te Ara explores Treaty of Waitangi settlements in which Māori have sought redress for breaches of the Treaty of Waitangi by the Crown. Select the 'Videos' option for documentaries that tell of the impact of colonisation on specific iwi, and the loss of their land and culture. Includes cross–curricular education resources in English and Māori medium that align with The New Zealand Curriculum and Te Marautanga of Aotearoa.

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Te Ara: Colonial and provincial government of New Zealand

This story from Te Ara describes early colonial, national, and provincial government in New Zealand, and the abolition of provincial government in 1876.

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National Library – Teaching and learning resources: Colonisation/immigration to Aotearoa and the NZ Wars

National Library's website has collections of curated resources about the colonisation of, and immigration to, Aotearoa New Zealand, and the New Zealand Wars. These digital collections include websites, images, documents, film, video, audio, book lists, and more. There are Topic Explorer sets, Curiosity Cards, learning activities, Many Answers, AnyQuestions and other digital collections to inspire students and help them understand stories and actions from the past. 

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NZHistory: New Zealand's Internal Wars

The NZHistory website describes New Zealand's 19th century internal wars – the Musket wars of the 1810s–1830s, and the conflicts of the 1840s–1870s that became known as the New Zealand wars, when British and colonial forces fought to open up the interior of the North Island for settlement. Includes images, video, interactive resource, and classroom ideas for exploring this topic.

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NZHistory – Overview of NZ in the 19th century: 1800–40

An overview of NZ in the 19th century 1800–40 from the NZHistory website – Māori society's interactions with Europeans, including traders and missionaries, changes in the demography of New Zealand, and the impact of early colonisation.

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NZHistory: Overview of NZ in the 19th century: 1840–70

An overview of NZ in the 19th Century 1840–1870, from the NZ History website – the impact of the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi, the growth of settler population, land sale and ownership, the Kingitanga movement, the New Zealand Wars and loss of Māori land.

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NZHistory: Overview of NZ in the 19th century: 1870–1900

An overview of NZ in the 19th Century 1870 – 1900, from the NZ History website. For the first time, in 1886, the majority of non–Māori people living here were New Zealand–born rather than immigrants. This overview looks at the nature and consequences of changes in New Zealand dominated by the values and the ambitions of the new settlers, including the impact of sheepfarming, discovery of gold, population growth, public works, social reform, and the continued decline in Māori land ownership as more land was obtained for settlement.

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National Library – Topic Explorer

The Topic Explorer helps you find quality, curated resources on a range of topics to support and inspire inquiry. Each topic features a carefully selected set of national and international resources, including websites, images, videos, books, and more.

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National Library – Topic Explorer: First encounters

This topic set relates to the first encounters between Māori and European explorers in Aotearoa, and includes images, videos, books, articles, websites, and research papers.

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National Library – Topic Explorer: New Zealand History

This topic set relates to Aotearoa New Zealand history, and includes images, videos, books, articles, newspapers, sets, websites, research papers, and audio files.

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National Library – Topic Explorer: Māori history post-European arrival

This topic set relates to Māori history post-European arrival and includes images, articles, resource sets, videos, websites, research papers, books, newspapers, and audio files.

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National Library – Topic Explorer: Colonial life in New Zealand

This topic set relates to Colonial life in New Zealand and includes images, books, videos, articles, websites, research papers, audio files, and resource sets.

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National Library – Topic Explorer: Immigration to Aotearoa/New Zealand

This topic set relates to Immigration to Aotearoa/New Zealand and includes images, articles, videos, data, websites, manuscripts and resource sets.

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National Library – Topic Explorer: NZ Wars The Wairau Affray 1843

This topic set relates to the Wairau Affray 1843 and includes images, books, articles, websites, newspapers, and audio files.

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National Library – Topic Explorer: NZ Wars: The Northern War 1845-46

This topic set relates to the New Zealand Wars: The Northern War 1845-46 and includes images, articles, manuscripts, audio files, videos, resource sets, newspapers, books, and websites.

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National Library – Topic Explorer: NZ Wars: War in Wellington and Whanganui 1845-47

This topic set relates to the New Zealand Wars: War in Wellington and Whanganui 1945-47 and includes images, books, articles, videos, newspaper, websites, and research papers.

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National Library – Topic Explorer: NZ Wars: Te Kooti’s War

This topic set relates to the New Zealand Wars: Te Kooti's War 1868-73 and includes images, manuscripts, books, archives, articles, videos, resource sets, newspapers, websites, research papers, and audio files.

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National Library – Topic Explorer: NZ Wars: War in Taranaki 1860-61 and 1864-66

This topic set relates to the New Zealand Wars: War in Taranaki 1960-61 and 1864-66 and includes images, articles, books, videos, research papers, newspapers and websites.

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National Library – Topic Explorer: NZ Wars: War in the Waikato 1863-65

This topic set relates to the New Zealand Wars: War in the Waikato 1863-65 and includes images, articles, resource sets, books, audio files, manuscripts, newspapers, videos, research papers, and websites.

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National Library – Topic Explorer: NZ Wars: War in Tauranga 1864

This topic set relates to the New Zealand Wars: War in Tauranga 1864 and includes images, articles, newspapers, archives, resource sets, videos, and books.

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National Library – Topic Explorer: NZ Wars: Tikowaru’s War 1868-9

This topic set relates to The New Zealand Wars: Tikowaru's War 1868-69 and includes images, articles, videos, books, newspapers, resource sets, manuscripts, websites, audio files, and research papers.

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National Library – Topic Explorer: NZ Wars: The Dog Tax War 1898

This topic set relates to the New Zealand Wars: The Dog Tax War 1898 and includes images, articles, archives, newspapers, books, websites, and videos.

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National Library – Topic Explorer: NZ Wars: Rua Kenena and Maungapōhatu 1916

This topic set relates to the New Zealand Wars: Rua Kenana and Maungapōhutu 1916 and includes images, articles, videos, newspapers, audio files, books, resource sets, websites and research papers.

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National Library – Many Answers: Pacific navigation (Senior primary)

This page includes information about researching Pacific navigation, tips, and links.

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National Library – Many Answers: Gold rush, New Zealand (Senior primary)

This page includes information about researching gold rushes in New Zealand, tips, and links.

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National Library – Many Answers: History, New Zealand (Junior secondary)

This page includes information about researching New Zealand history, tips, and links.

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National Library – Many Answers: Māori history (Junior secondary)

This page includes information about researching Māori history (junior secondary), tips, and links.

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National Library – Many Answers: Early settlers, New Zealand (Junior secondary)

This page includes information about researching Early Settlers in New Zealand, tips, and links.

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National Library – Many Answers: Immigration, New Zealand (Junior secondary)

This page includes information about researching immigration to New Zealand, tips, and links.

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National Library – Many Answers: New Zealand Wars (Senior secondary)

This page includes information about researching the New Zealand wars 1840s-1870s, tips, and links.

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NZ History: Timeline – Date

For a timeline of New Zealand's history you can search topics, events, people and places by A–Z, year date, or month on the NZ History website.

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Te Papa Collections Online: At Parihaka

This photograph by Burton Brothers shows three Māori women at Parihaka, the Taranaki Māori village invaded by armed constabulary and volunteers in 1881.

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Te Papa Collections Online: Etat de la petite colonie Française d'Akaroa

This French painting Etat de la petite colonie Française d'Akaroa depicts Akaroa and Banks Peninsula in 1865.

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Archives: Auckland Museum – A korao no New Zealand

View the text of A korao no New Zealand, the first book printed in te reo Māori. It was written by Thomas Kendall, school teacher at the first Church Missionary Society mission in NZ as an aid to educate Māori children. It included phrases, word lists and religious instruction. The children recited the alphabet and syllables, in hope of learning reading and writing.

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Auckland Museum Collections Online: Early 19th century Māori literacy

With the arrival of British missionaries, Māori quickly learned to read and write in order to learn about Christianity and European technology, read explanations of laws, news of events, notification of land sales, and more. View examples of original documents on the Auckland Museum's website.

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Te Ara: Colonial attitudes (artwork)

European settlers wanted to improve NZ by introducing species for farming, hunting and fishing – or just because they missed them. This artwork illustrates colonial attitudes to hunting.

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National Library – Curiosity cards for inquiry

Use these curiosity cards to spark student inquiry about Aotearoa New Zealand's bicultural heritage. Explore themes related to the He Tohu documents and exhibition, and Tuia — Encounters 250 (Tuia 250).

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National Library – Curiosity Cards: Te Horeta's nail (CC0002)

Use this curiosity card about Te Horeta's nail to spark student inquiry. There are also links to further resources.

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National Library – Curiosity Cards: The "Crook Cook" statue (CC0003)

Use this curiosity card about the 'Crook Cook' statue to spark student inquiry. There are also links to further resources.

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National Library – Curiosity Cards: Matau rino (TMCC5)

Use this curiosity card about a Matau rino (iron fish hook) to spark student inquiry. There are also links to further resources.

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National Library – Curiosity Cards: Burning the forest (CC0004)

Use this curiosity card about the burning of New Zealand forests to spark student inquiry. There are also links to further resources.

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National Library – Curiosity Cards: Huia (TMCC9)

Use this curiosity card about the huia (Heteralocha acutirostris) bird specimen to spark student inquiry. There are also links to further resources.

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RNZ – NZ Wars: The stories of Waitara

This documentary combines oral histories, state of the art animations and powerful dramatic re–enactments to bring to life the narratives of Te Ātiawa in their battle against the military might of the British Empire. Created and presented by Mihingarangi Forbes it documents the battle for control over the fertile lands of Taranaki.

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RNZ – NZ Wars: The stories of Ruapekapeka

This documentary tells the story of Northland's most infamous armed conflict in December 1845. It is hosted by Mihingarangi Forbes and includes rich video and audio content, and animations.

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NZ History – The wars of Waitara - roadside stories

Many battles have been fought near the north Taranaki town of Waitara, including major conflict between Waikato war parties and the local Te Ātiawa people. In 1860 a dispute over land ownership at Waitara led to the First Taranaki War between Māori and the government. This video with transcript tells the story.

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Te Ara: Effects of colonisation on Māori

This page describes the effects of colonisation on Māori health and life expectancy. There was a major decline in Māori life expectancy caused by the impact of introduced diseases to which Māori had no immunity. Loss of Māori land led to displacement of large numbers of Māori, poverty, overcrowded living conditions, and loss of access to healthy traditional food sources. Includes graphs, images, and video.

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Te Ara: History of Immigration

This section of Te Ara tells the story of immigration in New Zealand. These articles look at why people came to New Zealand, how they arrived here, and changes in NZ government policies that assisted more immigrants to come to NZ over time, leading to a more multicultural New Zealand.o.

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Ministry of Education Instructional Series search

Use keywords to search the School Journal series for stories and articles that focus on the New Zealand Wars, the Treaty of Waitangi, and related conflicts. Some resources include audio and teacher support material.

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National Library – NZ Wars: The Musket Wars

The Musket Wars were a series of inter-tribal Māori conflicts dominated by utu and muskets that occurred over three decades in the early 19th Century. 

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National Library – NZ Wars: The Wairau Affray 1843

Also known as the "Wairau Incident" and earlier, "Wairau Massacre", this brief, fatal fight between Māori and British settlers was the first after the signing of the 1840 Treaty of Waitangi. 

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National Library – NZ Wars: The Northern War 1845–46

The Northern War 1845–46 took place around the Bay of Islands and began with the sacking of Kororareka by Hone Heke in 1845. Its origins lay in the colonial government’s increased imposition of British sovereignty over Ngapuhi in direct opposition to the Treaty of Waitangi.

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National Library – NZ Wars: War in Taranaki 1860–61 and 1864–66

The campaigns in the Taranaki region were initiated by settler and the New Zealand Government's demand for arable land. The spark was a dispute over land held at Waitara by Māori but conflict soon spread throughout the Taranaki region.

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National Library – NZ Wars: Te Kooti’s War

Te Kooti, the famous Māori leader was an expert in guerrilla warfare and founder of the Māori Ringatū religious movement. He was exiled to the Chatham Islands in 1866, but escaped two years later.

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National Library – NZ Wars: War in Taranaki 1860-61 and 1864-66

The campaigns in the Taranaki region were initiated by settler and the New Zealand Government's demand for arable land. The spark was a dispute over land held at Waitara by Māori but conflict soon spread throughout the Taranaki region.

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National Library – NZ Wars: War in the Waikato 1863-65

Rangiriri, Rangiaowhai and Ōrākau were some of the major battles in the Waikato fought between 1863 and 1865. This set is about the reasons for this war, the battles and its lasting impact on Waikato iwi.

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National Library – NZ Wars: War in Tauranga 1864

The short campaign in Tauranga was overshadowed by the notable British Army loss at Gate Pa. However, this victory for local Ngāi Te Rangi was short-lived and confiscation of some of their whenua proceeded after their significant defeat at Te Ranga and the loss of their leader, Rāwiri Puhirake. 

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National Library – NZ Wars: Tikowaru’s War 1868–9

Ngā Ruahine leader Riwha Titokowaru is known as one of Aotearoa New Zealand's best military leaders. In his South Taranaki campaign (fought over the confiscation of Māori land) between 1868–69, he never lost a battle. 

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National Library – NZ Wars: The Dog Tax War 1898

The Dog Tax War was one of the last New Zealand conflicts between Māori and Pakeha. Māori in Hokianga refused to pay a tax for their dogs, which led to an armed standoff in Rawene. No lives were lost, and Māori were persuaded to surrender their arms.

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National Library: Remembering Parihaka

This National Library blog recalls the events at Parihaka 5 November 1881, when 1500 armed constabulary and volunteers invaded the peaceful Taranaki Māori village, and the Crown's subsequent formal apology for this in 2017.

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